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/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
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<div class='headerShadow'>
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<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
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To get started with this blank TiddlyWiki, you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* SiteTitle & SiteSubtitle: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* MainMenu: The menu (usually on the left)
* DefaultTiddlers: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These InterfaceOptions for customising TiddlyWiki are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs)

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups
<<option chkAutoSave>> AutoSave
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> CaseSensitiveSearch
<<option chkAnimate>> EnableAnimations

----
Also see AdvancedOptions
<<importTiddlers>>
!!!What is Adaptive Decision Making?
Attendees at a recent symposium concerning “adaptability” defined the term with varying degrees of precision. By some accounts, adaptability is a product of “crucible experiences” or a “bias to action” in the midst of chaos. By other accounts, adaptability is synonymous with critical thinking, or a function of multiple cognitive processes: creativity, critical thinking, and systems thinking. The first two of these definitions seem insufficient to distinguish adaptability from other decision-making activity; by the last two definitions, adaptability is redundant with well-understood processes, and thus unnecessary. To address these two problems, we need a testable definition of adaptability that specifies (1) the effects and (2) the processes of adaptive decision making

''Effects:'' Adaptive decision making should produce three types of decisions that are distinct from the norm, namely (0) the application of standard solutions in familiar ways to common problems. Specifically, adaptation should produce decisions that (1) apply standard solutions to familiar problems but do so in rapid response to a changing situation, (2) apply standard solutions in surprising ways to new problems, and (3) generate new solutions to address novel problems. This definition by effects allows us to recognize adaptive decision making when it occurs. It provides the structure we need to create instructions and practice problems that systematically train, exercise, and test adaptive decision making processes. 

''Processes:'' It seems likely that adaptability is the product of known cognitive processes, such as creativity and critical thinking, rather than a newly discovered process. Many authors have explored these processes, and some have produced empirically validated tests and training regimens. These, obviously, might benefit the effort to understand and train adaptability. Specifically, teachers of adaptability should examine cognitive process models of creativity. These date from at least Wallas’s (1926) five-phase model of preparation, incubation, intimation, illumination, and verification, to recent empirical research concerning flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) and the subconscious integration of disparate ideas (“conceptual blending”, Turner and Fauconnier, 2002). A similarly strong foundation exists in critical thinking. For example, Cohen, Freeman, et al. (1996, 1997, and 1998) developed a model of critical thinking for the Navy and validated the positive effects of critical thinking training on the processes and outcomes of tactical decision making under stress. A process definition allows us to leverage extant evidence and methods to improve adaptability in decision making.

!!!Considerations for Improving Adaptive Decision Making
What are needed in addition to a definition are, of course, measures. These must help us to diagnose, explain, and predict adaptive decision making (1) in terms of effects and processes (above), (2) at the individual and group level, (3) in specific domains. I press the last point because current theories of expertise (Klein, 1993; Cohen, Freeman, et al., 1996) posit that cognitive skills (e.g., creativity, critical thinking) are effective only when the decision maker has the relevant domain knowledge (e.g., of dismounted warfare) to which to apply them. Thus, domain-independent measures may have little validity (though domain-specific measures are necessarily costly because they are many and varied). 

Finally, a pragmatic point. Adaptability is a good thing sometimes, not always. When a standard solution will get the job done, adaptation is not needed and it is, in fact, deleterious. In those situations, adaptation makes the actions of the adaptive decision maker unpredictable to collaborators. This, in turn, diminishes the ability of collaborators to align and synchronize their actions. Adaptation, too, is desirable at the right time and place. Thus, training and reforms to enhance adaptation must (1) improve adaptation, not necessarily increase it; (2) enable adaptive decision makers to discern (a) when to adapt, (b) at what cost (e.g., to collaborators), and (c) with what likely effects relative to standard solutions; and (3) integrate successful innovations and their context into the library of known solutions.

!!!References
Cohen, M.S., Freeman, J.T. and Thompson, B.T. (1998). Critical Thinking Skills in Tactical Decision Making: A Model and a Training Method. (Canon-Bowers, J. and E. Salas, eds.), Decision-Making Under Stress: Implications for Training and Simulation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Publications.
Cohen, Marvin S. and Freeman, Jared T. (1997). Improving critical thinking. In Flin, R., Salas, E., Strub, M., and Martin, L. (Eds.), Decision Making Under Stress: Emerging Themes and Applications. Ashgate.
Cohen, Marvin S., Freeman, Jared T. and Thompson, Bryan B. (1996). Training the naturalistic decision maker. In Caroline Zsambok and Gary Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1996). Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. New York: Harper Perennial.
Klein, G.A. (1993). ‘A Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) model of rapid decision making.’ In G.A. Klein, J. Orasanu, R. Calderwood & C.E. Zsambok (Eds.), Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation., pp. 138-147.
Turner, M., and Fauconnier, G. (2002). The Way We Think. Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.
Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought. New York: Holt.

How can bricks-and-mortar shops go virtual? Here’s one scheme:

# I generate a wish-list on my wireless PDA and give vendors read permission.
# Vendors search me out as I pass through the neighborhood. They submit bids for one or more wish-list items, perhaps increasing my discount with my distance from their store.
# I visit the store with the best mix of proximity and price, and I buy the goods I want.

A troubling departure from the Quaker tradition of “one price for all?” Yes, but Dell and others have been customizing prices to customers for years.

An appalling invasion of privacy? Perhaps that’s a good characterization of releasing one’s location and consumption goals to retailers...but it may be worth it to some.

An unreasonable extension of the technology? I don’t think so.
Gary Klein and Holly Baxter argue in an engaging chapter (below) that instruction and instructional systems typically adopt a storehouse analogy, in which instruction is designed to add to the student's cache of knowledge. This analogy is sufficient for increasing declarative knowledge, they assert, but not for learning complex patterns or building new mental models. The authors propose a "cognitive transformation theory" that emphasizes diagnosing and repairing or replacing flawed mental models, which are defined as "clusters of causal beliefs about how things happen". The theory focuses on sensemaking activities that include diagnosis (to identify flaws in mental models), learning objectives (e.g., to help the student revise a mental model), practice (with a particular emphasis on allocating attention in the practice environment), and feedback. Accordingly, three key focii of instruction and instructional environments must be support for diagnosis, attention allocation, and feedback. 

Cognitive Transformation Theory harkens back to constructivism, a theory espousing that students create knowledge, that learning is an act of creating rather than absorbing knowledge. It is also reminiscent of the work on intelligent tutoring systems, which focuses on modeling student state (diagnosis), presenting well targeted instructional material (in support of attention allocation), and selecting and timing feedback. Cognitive Transformation Theory is not bound to intelligent tutoring technology, however. Thus, it pulls the responsibility for diagnosis, attention management, and feeedback partly out of the machine and hands it back to the student, who must, in the end, accomplish these feats. The chapter is part of a three volume set on training and education in virtual environments. The authors take the opportunity to draw implications for the design of these environments. They recommend developing scenarios that elicit flaws in mental models, enable students to play out those scenarios to make failures explicit, and help them to diagnose flaws and repair or replace those models. This strategy requires either that the training environment maintain an encyclopedic representation of flawed mental models, or that the student be trained to diagnose flaws in mental models. Some combination of the two is appealing. Both, however, are expensive in terms of the time required of instructional designers or students. Thus, we must consider that brute force instructional methods may often be the sufficient and efficient alternative. By this I mean that simply training in "the one, right way" to execute a task (when the domain affords one), may be sufficient to instruct the learner adequately, quickly, and economically. 

Cognitive Transformation Theory, in sum, reminds us both of a recent and rich literature in instructional theory, and of the need to carefully select theory to fit the instructional task.

Reference: Klein, G., and Baxter, H.C. (2008). Cognitive transformation theory: contrasting cognitive and behavioral learning. In Dylan Schmorrow, Joseph Cohn, and Denise Nicholson (Eds.), The PSI Handbook of Virtual Environments for Training and Education. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
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/***
|''Name:''|CryptoFunctionsPlugin|
|''Description:''|Support for cryptographic functions|
***/
//{{{
if(!version.extensions.CryptoFunctionsPlugin) {
version.extensions.CryptoFunctionsPlugin = {installed:true};

//--
//-- Crypto functions and associated conversion routines
//--

// Crypto "namespace"
function Crypto() {}

// Convert a string to an array of big-endian 32-bit words
Crypto.strToBe32s = function(str)
{
	var be = Array();
	var len = Math.floor(str.length/4);
	var i, j;
	for(i=0, j=0; i<len; i++, j+=4) {
		be[i] = ((str.charCodeAt(j)&0xff) << 24)|((str.charCodeAt(j+1)&0xff) << 16)|((str.charCodeAt(j+2)&0xff) << 8)|(str.charCodeAt(j+3)&0xff);
	}
	while (j<str.length) {
		be[j>>2] |= (str.charCodeAt(j)&0xff)<<(24-(j*8)%32);
		j++;
	}
	return be;
};

// Convert an array of big-endian 32-bit words to a string
Crypto.be32sToStr = function(be)
{
	var str = "";
	for(var i=0;i<be.length*32;i+=8)
		str += String.fromCharCode((be[i>>5]>>>(24-i%32)) & 0xff);
	return str;
};

// Convert an array of big-endian 32-bit words to a hex string
Crypto.be32sToHex = function(be)
{
	var hex = "0123456789ABCDEF";
	var str = "";
	for(var i=0;i<be.length*4;i++)
		str += hex.charAt((be[i>>2]>>((3-i%4)*8+4))&0xF) + hex.charAt((be[i>>2]>>((3-i%4)*8))&0xF);
	return str;
};

// Return, in hex, the SHA-1 hash of a string
Crypto.hexSha1Str = function(str)
{
	return Crypto.be32sToHex(Crypto.sha1Str(str));
};

// Return the SHA-1 hash of a string
Crypto.sha1Str = function(str)
{
	return Crypto.sha1(Crypto.strToBe32s(str),str.length);
};

// Calculate the SHA-1 hash of an array of blen bytes of big-endian 32-bit words
Crypto.sha1 = function(x,blen)
{
	// Add 32-bit integers, wrapping at 32 bits
	add32 = function(a,b)
	{
		var lsw = (a&0xFFFF)+(b&0xFFFF);
		var msw = (a>>16)+(b>>16)+(lsw>>16);
		return (msw<<16)|(lsw&0xFFFF);
	};
	// Add five 32-bit integers, wrapping at 32 bits
	add32x5 = function(a,b,c,d,e)
	{
		var lsw = (a&0xFFFF)+(b&0xFFFF)+(c&0xFFFF)+(d&0xFFFF)+(e&0xFFFF);
		var msw = (a>>16)+(b>>16)+(c>>16)+(d>>16)+(e>>16)+(lsw>>16);
		return (msw<<16)|(lsw&0xFFFF);
	};
	// Bitwise rotate left a 32-bit integer by 1 bit
	rol32 = function(n)
	{
		return (n>>>31)|(n<<1);
	};

	var len = blen*8;
	// Append padding so length in bits is 448 mod 512
	x[len>>5] |= 0x80 << (24-len%32);
	// Append length
	x[((len+64>>9)<<4)+15] = len;
	var w = Array(80);

	var k1 = 0x5A827999;
	var k2 = 0x6ED9EBA1;
	var k3 = 0x8F1BBCDC;
	var k4 = 0xCA62C1D6;

	var h0 = 0x67452301;
	var h1 = 0xEFCDAB89;
	var h2 = 0x98BADCFE;
	var h3 = 0x10325476;
	var h4 = 0xC3D2E1F0;

	for(var i=0;i<x.length;i+=16) {
		var j,t;
		var a = h0;
		var b = h1;
		var c = h2;
		var d = h3;
		var e = h4;
		for(j = 0;j<16;j++) {
			w[j] = x[i+j];
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),d^(b&(c^d)),w[j],k1);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		}
		for(j=16;j<20;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),d^(b&(c^d)),w[j],k1);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		}
		for(j=20;j<40;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),b^c^d,w[j],k2);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		}
		for(j=40;j<60;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),(b&c)|(d&(b|c)),w[j],k3);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		}
		for(j=60;j<80;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),b^c^d,w[j],k4);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		}

		h0 = add32(h0,a);
		h1 = add32(h1,b);
		h2 = add32(h2,c);
		h3 = add32(h3,d);
		h4 = add32(h4,e);
	}
	return Array(h0,h1,h2,h3,h4);
};


}
//}}}
[[What, Why, and How]]
/***
|''Name:''|DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin|
|''Description:''|Support for deprecated functions removed from core|
***/
//{{{
if(!version.extensions.DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin) {
version.extensions.DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin = {installed:true};

//--
//-- Deprecated code
//--

// @Deprecated: Use createElementAndWikify and this.termRegExp instead
config.formatterHelpers.charFormatHelper = function(w)
{
	w.subWikify(createTiddlyElement(w.output,this.element),this.terminator);
};

// @Deprecated: Use enclosedTextHelper and this.lookaheadRegExp instead
config.formatterHelpers.monospacedByLineHelper = function(w)
{
	var lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
	lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
	var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source);
	if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
		var text = lookaheadMatch[1];
		if(config.browser.isIE)
			text = text.replace(/\n/g,"\r");
		createTiddlyElement(w.output,"pre",null,null,text);
		w.nextMatch = lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex;
	}
};

// @Deprecated: Use <br> or <br /> instead of <<br>>
config.macros.br = {};
config.macros.br.handler = function(place)
{
	createTiddlyElement(place,"br");
};

// Find an entry in an array. Returns the array index or null
// @Deprecated: Use indexOf instead
Array.prototype.find = function(item)
{
	var i = this.indexOf(item);
	return i == -1 ? null : i;
};

// Load a tiddler from an HTML DIV. The caller should make sure to later call Tiddler.changed()
// @Deprecated: Use store.getLoader().internalizeTiddler instead
Tiddler.prototype.loadFromDiv = function(divRef,title)
{
	return store.getLoader().internalizeTiddler(store,this,title,divRef);
};

// Format the text for storage in an HTML DIV
// @Deprecated Use store.getSaver().externalizeTiddler instead.
Tiddler.prototype.saveToDiv = function()
{
	return store.getSaver().externalizeTiddler(store,this);
};

// @Deprecated: Use store.allTiddlersAsHtml() instead
function allTiddlersAsHtml()
{
	return store.allTiddlersAsHtml();
}

// @Deprecated: Use refreshPageTemplate instead
function applyPageTemplate(title)
{
	refreshPageTemplate(title);
}

// @Deprecated: Use story.displayTiddlers instead
function displayTiddlers(srcElement,titles,template,unused1,unused2,animate,unused3)
{
	story.displayTiddlers(srcElement,titles,template,animate);
}

// @Deprecated: Use story.displayTiddler instead
function displayTiddler(srcElement,title,template,unused1,unused2,animate,unused3)
{
	story.displayTiddler(srcElement,title,template,animate);
}

// @Deprecated: Use functions on right hand side directly instead
var createTiddlerPopup = Popup.create;
var scrollToTiddlerPopup = Popup.show;
var hideTiddlerPopup = Popup.remove;

// @Deprecated: Use right hand side directly instead
var regexpBackSlashEn = new RegExp("\\\\n","mg");
var regexpBackSlash = new RegExp("\\\\","mg");
var regexpBackSlashEss = new RegExp("\\\\s","mg");
var regexpNewLine = new RegExp("\n","mg");
var regexpCarriageReturn = new RegExp("\r","mg");

}
//}}}
TiddlyWiki uses Wiki style markup, a way of lightly "tagging" plain text so it can be transformed into HTML. Edit this Tiddler to see samples. (Thanks to Clint Checketts of [[tiddlysinister|http://15black.bluedepot.com/styles/tiddlysinister.html]] for this content.)

! Header Samples
!Header 1
!!Header 2
!!!Header 3
!!!!Header 4
!!!!!Header 5

! Unordered Lists:
* Lists are where it's at
* Just use an asterisk and you're set
** To nest lists just add more asterisks...
***...like this
* The circle makes a great bullet because once you've printed a list you can mark off completed items
* You can also nest mixed list types
## Like this

! Ordered Lists
# Ordered lists are pretty neat too
# If you're handy with HTML and CSS you could customize the [[numbering scheme|http://www.w3schools.com/css/pr_list-style-type.asp]]
## To nest, just add more octothorpes (pound signs)...
### Like this
* You can also
** Mix list types
*** like this
# Pretty neat don't you think?

! Tiddler links
To create a Tiddler link, just use mixed-case WikiWord, or use [[brackets]] for NonWikiWordLinks. This is how the GTD style [[@Action]] lists are created. 

Note that existing Tiddlers are in bold and empty Tiddlers are in italics. See CreatingTiddlers for details.

! External Links
You can link to [[external sites|http://google.com]] with brackets. You can also LinkToFolders on your machine or network shares.

! Images
Edit this tiddler to see how it's done.
[img[http://www.geocities.com/liviozuc/hyperimages/h7x7x7x7.gif]]



!Tables
|!th1111111111|!th2222222222|
|>| colspan |
| rowspan |left|
|~| right|
|colored| center |
|caption|c

For a complex table example, see PeriodicTable.

! Horizontal Rules
You can divide a tiddler into
----
sections by typing four dashes on a line by themselves.

! Blockquotes
<<<
This is how you do an extended, wrapped blockquote so you don't have to put angle quotes on every line.
<<<
>level 1
>level 1
>>level 2
>>level 2
>>>level 3
>>>level 3
>>level 2
>level 1

! Other Formatting
''Bold''
==Strike==
__Underline__
//Italic//
Superscript: 2^^3^^=8
Subscript: a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~
@@highlight@@ Unfortunately highlighting is broken right now.
@@color(green):green colored@@
@@bgcolor(#ff0000):color(#ffffff):red colored@@ Hex colors are also broken right now.
To get started with this blank TiddlyWiki, you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* SiteTitle & SiteSubtitle: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* MainMenu: The menu (usually on the left)
* DefaultTiddlers: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
Time management. It's the topic of 140,545 books on Amazon.com. It's headache and heartache for most everybody. How can we deal with time management? By recognizing two principles:

# ''Emotion drives accomplishment'' -- For all the emphasis that time management gurus put on rational methods, it is emotion that is probably the best compass in time management. Nothing gets the important work done like passion and guilt.
## Passion -- The compulsion to craft a product well. This takes time, so it's important to distinguish passion about meaningful tasks from play. Note that passion tends to diminish over time.
## Guilt -- The conviction that one must do the task to fulfill an obligation. These tasks hide, Gollum-like, behind damp piles of distractions. They emerge aggrieved, demanding attention...and its best they get it. Guilt tends to increase over time.
# ''Method masters the storm'' -- A whirlwind of calls, meetings, writing, form-filling, and other activities envelopes us. Good methods help to tame the  cyclone. The simplest method I know disposes of incoming tasks like so:
## Delete it -- If it's not important and never will be, hit delete.
## Do it -- If it's important, easy, and fast, just do it. In [[Getting Things Done|http://www.amazon.com/Getting-Things-Done-Stress-Free-Productivity/dp/0142000280/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1198031443&sr=1-1]], David Allen defines "fast" as about 2 minutes.
## Delegate it -- If it's important, I'm not critical to success, I try to delegate. 
## Date it -- If it's important and I am a key player, I set the date...to meet, to plan, to do, whatever
## Delay it -- It if might one day be important or useful (an article, for example) I set it aside, typically by placing it in the pile of stuff to do one day or by placing it on a to do list (one that I read far too rarely).

What's not on this list of tips: Explicit prioritization of tasks. Andy why is it not here? Because task priority is unstable, dynamic, it changes over time. Specifically, task priority is a function of:
* Context -- Some tasks are so convenient in a particular context that their priority rises. Some are overtaken by events (OBE) and so become no priority at all. 
* Personal state -- Some tough tasks are easy on a good day, and that makes them a high priority. Today's a good day to do some writing, even though other things are pressing, so I'll do a writing task. 
Further, it's not clear that any monolithic measure, such as priority, accurately represents what deserves to be done next. Stephen Covey made this argument in [[First Things First|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Things_First_%28book%29]], where he asserted that priority is a function of urgency and importance. Non-urgent but important tasks deserve more attention (higher priority) than they typically get, Covey asserts. Of course, one must respond to some urgent and important tasks, first because they are just that -- urgent and important. Second, these tasks often reflect the priorities of colleagues and friends. One helps them fight their fires in order to maintain their trust and support. Prioritization, thus, is a tricky thing. 

A colleague recently gave me a copy of James Hodges classic paper ''Six (or so) things you can do with a bad model. (Rand Note N-3381-RC)''. By ''bad'', Hodges meant that models were unvalidated or even invalid. This is precisely the problem we and others confront in many cultural and social modeling efforts. 

Several of Hodges six points struck home. They suggested ways in which we might design future model-based systems differently than we do now. I've sketched out these ideas briefly below, and given examples of how we might (have) implemented them in the a system I helped design that we’ll call System X. Such design changes might have made a very good model even more useful. For any of you who're designing model-based systems in the future, please consider these concepts:

!!How to design a system around a 'bad' (unvalidated or invalid) model

''Make input data easily available to the users'' (e.g., as a massive, sortable spreadsheet or pivot tables), so that they can search for patterns on their own. The value of this design strategy is bolstered by studies of meteorologists, which found that expert meteorologists prefer to start their analyses with the raw data before considering the predictions of models, while less expert meteorologists worked in the reverse order. 
* Example: System X gives analysts ready access to data concerning organization activities, staff, products, and schedules. However, analysts can only read and write parameters one data object at a time (not en masse, as in a spreadsheet). This helps prevent massive editing errors, but limits the ability of analysts to search for patterns creatively and edit batches of data when that's appropriate.
''Implement simple functions (such as scheduling) that support day-to-day management'' of the organization, whether or not the complex functions (such as forecasts) are accurate or are used.
* Example: One analyst's first, enthusiastic response to a demonstration of System X -- designed to analyze the size and allocation of manning for complex missions -- was this: 'You could turn this into a leave (vacation) scheduler.' He's probably correct that the simple (?) function of scheduling leave would be greatly valued in our organization.
* Example: Another surprisingly effective but simple function of an early version of System X was its ability to find products that were created by tasks within the organization but not consumed by other tasks within the organization, and those that were consumed but never created. This led to the discovery of some errors in the organizational design and to specification of the external sources and sinks for other products.
''Help analysts to consider decision factors they might otherwise ignore.'' This recalls a talk given by former DARPA program manager Alex Kott, in which he emphasized that the greatest value of an unvalidated social behavior model he funded was that it surprised decision makers, by which he meant that it informed their thinking.
* Example: System X could make some subtle parameters (e.g., the rate of decay and repair of products) salient to analysts.
''Help customers sell programs with models'', regardless of whether the models make valid predictions. 
* Example: The data that feed System X are voluminous and complex, so much so that we and the customer have come to realize that the organization’s managers may need model-based systems to define feasible schedules for meetings and tasks. Whether or not our system is that tool, its displays of those data are a strong argument that a scheduling tool is critical to successful management of the organization.
How to Write Badly

Readers of this short article may expect a list of unambiguous rules that ensure, even inspire a low quality of writing. Those expectations will be shattered, or at least dinged at the edges, by the guidance below, which is so subtle, so elegantly nuanced that even the most dedicated adherent and auteur may unintentionally create good text. 

In preparing to write badly, first ask yourself, “What sort of writing do I want to bungle?” Writers of fiction should look elsewhere for misguidance. Writers of non-fiction, may benefit from these tips. 

# Open purposelessly. There is no need to state your thesis early (nor often). Many readers enjoy a gentle introduction to complex material; many enjoy the process of discovery. Let them have this simple joy, and in the same pen stroke, spare yourself the effort of discerning what it is you’re trying to say.
# Prefer style to structure. The astute reader will give your work full attention, and will infer the structure of your argument from the stream of consciousness that inks your page. It is true that few readers, if any, are so alert and dedicated to you, oh anonymous author, that they can accomplish this. Think of your writing as a training ground for readers.
# Don’t let style get in your way. Compelling examples, rich detail, consistent use of verb tense and person; these are the elements of style that obsess less productive, so-called professional writers. The writer who can look beyond these constraints to the open fields of expression is able to churn out text almost as fast as he or she can type. 
# Close on an inconsequential note.
A great deal of military command and control occurs over maps. But maps are inevitably deceptive; unambiguous symbology masks identification errors, severe latencies, and systematic omission of data (the data that system designers believe doesn’t matter, or that sensors can’t detect). Miller talks to this problem. He explains that, “There is often an assumption that the symbology or data on a map is completely accurate. A map’s symbology must distort the data in an effort to present a coherent informative picture… {and} the data behind that visual representation is distorted as well.”

Curiously, mapping systems offer little support for identifying and resolving these distortions, the problematic data. For example, maps don’t help operators share knowledge of unreliable data and its impact on decisions. These information systems, in general, are not well integrated with the social system of cartographers, geologists, multi-source analysts, correlation analysts, and others who interpret data and diagnose data problems for decision makers.

How can we integrate data systems with social systems? Web 2.0 functions, such as tagging, don’t seem a particularly useful solution. These are persistent functions applied to relatively static content, as tags are applied to web pages. Maps and some other C2 information systems are dynamic database applications.

Is there a dynamic solution to integrating social systems and information systems? One strategy is to poll the users of an information system periodically or monitor their communications to learn (1) how information from systems is distributed across the team and (2) what judgments people have about that information and the team’s actions around it. This solution would create a Common Operational Picture of Team Knowledge (COPTK). We’ve been doing some work in this line, to automatically assess the distribution of knowledge from communications data, and to help leaders poll team members for judgments about data and team actions.

There must be other ways to conceive of an integration of social systems and information systems…
Looking for home? Try this: [[What, Why, and How]].
/***
|''Name:''|LegacyStrikeThroughPlugin|
|''Description:''|Support for legacy (pre 2.1) strike through formatting|
|''Version:''|1.0.2|
|''Date:''|Jul 21, 2006|
|''Source:''|http://www.tiddlywiki.com/#LegacyStrikeThroughPlugin|
|''Author:''|MartinBudden (mjbudden (at) gmail (dot) com)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license]]|
|''CoreVersion:''|2.1.0|
***/

//{{{
// Ensure that the LegacyStrikeThrough Plugin is only installed once.
if(!version.extensions.LegacyStrikeThroughPlugin) {
version.extensions.LegacyStrikeThroughPlugin = {installed:true};

config.formatters.push(
{
	name: "legacyStrikeByChar",
	match: "==",
	termRegExp: /(==)/mg,
	element: "strike",
	handler: config.formatterHelpers.createElementAndWikify
});

} //# end of "install only once"
//}}}
[[Thoughts]]
[[Publications]]
[[Resume]]
[[Tools]]
Making is a new name for an old avocation: tinkering. That's not quite correct. Makers both tinker and publish. By documenting their work,  tinkers turn their toys into technologies, and by aggregating their publications (see [[Makezine|http://makezine.com/]]) they create a league, a movement. They shake things up.

Nine of ten Maker projects are pointless to any given reader (c.f., Dot matrix printers as musical intruments).  However, this movement is exciting in at least two respects. First, the urge to make seems  more worthy than the common predilection to consume by shopping, watching movies, and the like. This is particularly true when making consumes discarded goods, or subversively converts throw-away goods (such as drugstore digital cameras) into permanent products.  Second, making is therapeutic, I suspect, for a generation of people raised in the 1960s and 1970s to abhor consumption. This is an age of spare time. We don't need to milk the cows and rake the hay. We hire others to roof the house.  We need to make. 
How do professionals in information-intensive industries (I3) manage the blizzard of opportunities and commitments through which they stride each day? I've been wondering since I missed the time management class at my office. That class focused largely on documenting prioritized tasks in a task list and calendar. It's a fine set of strategies, but wildly incomplete.

Professionals also manage their opportunities and commitments by creating reminders in the social and physical environment in which they work. Some strategies I use are probably typical:

* Place papers that must be dealt with "in the way" of a later task. For example, I put items put them on the floor between the desk and the office door; I put them on the chair before leaving for the night.
* Ask others to take an action or decision and reply back concerning it. For example, I may ask a colleague to send an article, receipt of which will inform,  but also trigger my phone call to a business prospect.

These are mundane examples of shifting the mental labor of remembering to the social world and to artifacts other than a calendar. These strategies are often less effort than recording the task on a list, and (at least in my case) more reliable. The gravity that keeps paper on floors is certainly more dependable than me, my colleagues are generally so.

I come late to this insight. Smarter folk have been grappling with the problem for some time. For example:

* Don Norman notes that, "People operate as a type of distributed intelligence, where much of our intelligent behavior results from the interaction of mental processes with the objects and constraints of the world and where much behavior takes place through a cooperative process with others."
* Ed Hutchins has shown that task execution and task outcomes are influenced by the availability (or absence) of the simplest artifacts for reminding them of crucial events or boundaries on operation.
* Wayne Gray and colleagues have shown that millisecond savings in information retrieval time are often incentive enough to alter task execution strategies. 

The odd thing is that strategies for shifting memory load from the head to the social and physical world are rarely captured and even more rarely taught. Is there room for another self-help course or book entitled: Memory World: Strategies for Offloading Mental Effort Onto the Things and People Around You.

''References''

Fu, W.-T., & Gray, W. D. (2006). Suboptimal tradeoffs in information seeking. Cognitive Psychology, 52(3), 195-242.
Hutchins, Edwin. (1995). "How a cockpit remembers its speeds," Cognitive Science, vol. 19, pp. 265-88.
Norman, Donald. (1993.) Things That Make Us Smart. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
[[SpotFire|spotfire.com]] is Ben Shneiderman’s effort to simplify graphical analysis of business data. The product is SPSS/SYSTAT/SAS + automated selection of graph controls (radio buttons where you need them, sliders where they’re best) + cross-graph coordination (select part of a graph to see the underlying data) + web-publishing + collaboration features. It’s a powerful combination, from the looks of it.

[[Shneiderman’s research|http://www.cs.umd.edu/%7Eben/]] is focused on advanced visualization, but there’s none of it here. SPOTFIRE displays traditional maps and graphs made more accessible, publishable, and shareable. SPOTFIRE illustrates the value in making what we’ve got (bar graphs, maps...) usable before inventing new goods. Teach your old dog new tricks.

Copyright Notice: The documents accessible through this page are provided to facilitate dissemination of scholarly and technical work on a noncommercial basis. Copyright is maintained by the authors or other copyright holders, and copyright law requires respect for the terms of each document's copyright.

!! Journal Articles
# [[Andrews, D. H.; Freeman, J.; Andre, T. S.; Feeney, J; Carlin, A.; Fidopiastis, C. M.; Fitzgerald, P. (2013). Training Organizational Supervisors to Detect and Prevent Cyber Insider Threats: Two Approaches.  International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), EAI Endorsed Transactions on Security and safety. January-June 2013, Volume 13, Issues 1-6, e4.  |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_InsiderThreat_ICST_2013.pdf]] Available at http://www.eudl.eu/journal/sesa
# [[Freeman, Jared. (2013). Deep Learning: How the Mind Overrides Experience, by Stellan Ohlsson. (Book review). Special Issue of Cognitive Technology concerning Accelerated Learning and Expertise, edited by Robert Hoffman and Dee Andrews.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_DeepLearningReview_CognitiveTechnology_2013.pdf]]  
# [[Shebilske, W., Gildea, K., Freeman, J., Levchuk, G. (2009). Optimizing Instructional Strategies: A Benchmarked Experiential System for Training (BEST). Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science. Special Issue on Optimizing Virtual Training Systems, v10 (3) May 2009 , pages 267 - 278.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_BEST_TIES_2006.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J. (2006). Stories in Training: Why and When A Response to Fiore and McDaniel. THEN. www.thenjournal.org. (http://thenjournal.org/commentary/113/)|http://thenjournal.org:16080/commentary/113/]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., Thompson, B.T., and Cohen, M.S. (2000). Modeling and assessing domain knowledge using latent semantic indexing. Special Issue of Interactive Learning Environments. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-LSA_Knowledge_Modeling-1999.pdf]]
# [[Cohen, Marvin S., Freeman, Jared T. and Wolf, Steve. (1996). Meta-recognition in time- stressed decision making: Recognizing, critiquing, and correcting. Human Factors, 38(2), 206-219, Santa Monica, CA: HFES.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Time_Stressed_DecisionMaking-1996.pdf]]
# [[Weitzenfeld, J.S., Riedl, T.R., Chubb, C., and Freeman, J. (1993). Cross-domain language among expert software developers. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 7(3 and 4), 185-195. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Programmer_Language-1992.pdf]]

!! Book Chapters
# Cohen, M.S., Freeman, J.T. and Thompson, B.B. (in press, 2015).  Training the Naturalistic Decision Maker. In Don Harris and Wen - Chin Li (editors), Ashgate Library of Critical Essays on Human Factors in Aviation. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Press. 
# [[Levchuk, G., Shebilske, W., and Freeman, J. (2012). A model-driven instructional strategy: The benchmarked experiential system for training (BEST). In P. J. Durlach & A. M. Lesgold (Eds.) Adaptive Technologies for Training and Education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_ARI_Adaptive_Training_2010_v14.pdf]]
# [[Shebilske, W., Levchuk, G., and Freeman, J. (2009). A team training paradigm for better combat identification. In Dee Andrews, Robert Herz, and Mark Wolf (eds.) Human Factors Issues in Combat Identification. Ashgate, Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_CombatID_2009.pdf]]
# [[MacMillan, J., Stacy, W., and Freeman, J. (2011). The Design of Synthetic Experiences for Effective Training: Challenges for DMO. Tampa, FL: Taylor & Francis.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_SyntheticExperiences_AFRL-2007.pdf]]
# [[Hess, Kathleen P.; Freeman, Jared; and Coovert, Michael. (2008). CENTER:  Critical thinking in Team Decision Making. In Letsky, M. and Warner, N. (eds,) Macrocognition in Teams: Theories and Methodologies. Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants, GU11 3HR, U.K.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Center_CKI_2008.pdf]]
# [[Geyer, A., Freeman, J., Nicholson, D., Fedopiastis, C., Luu, P., & Cohn, J. (2009). Neurally driven adaptive decision aids. In D.D. Schmorrow et al. (Eds.), Augmented Cognition, HCII, LNAI 5638, pp. 30–34.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_NeuralDecisionAids_HCIInternational_2009.pdf]]
# [[Weil, Shawn A.; Foster, Pacey; Freeman, Jared; Carley, Kathleen; Diesner, Jana; Franz, Terrill; Cooke, Nancy; Shope, Steve; and Gorman, Jamie. (2008). Converging approaches to automated communications-based assessment of team situation awareness. In Letsky, M. and Warner, N. (eds,) Macrocognition in Teams: Theories and Methodologies. Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants, GU11 3HR, U.K.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_IMAGES_Macrocognition_2008.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Stacy, W. Olivares, O. (2009). Assessment for Learning and Development in Virtual Environments. Schmorrow, D., Cohn, J., & Nicholson, D. (Eds.), The PSI handbook of virtual environments for training and education: Developments for the military and beyond. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Assessment_VirtualEnvironments_2008.pdf]]
# [[Wiese, E.E., Freeman, J., Salter, W.J., Stelzer, E.M., Jackson, C. (2008). Distributed After Action Review for Simulation-Based Training. (Vincenzi, D.A., Wise, J.A., Mustapha, M., and Hancock, P.A., Eds.) Human Factors in Simulation and Training. Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AARforDistributedSims_HFinTraining_2008.pdf]]
# [[Shebilske, Wayne; Gildea, Kevin; Freeman, Jared; Levchuk, Georgiy. (2006). A benchmarked experiential system for training (BEST) and dynamic systems theory. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings, Training , pp. 2649-2653(5).|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_BEST_HFES_2006.pdf]]
# [[Weil, S.A., Freeman, J., MacMillan, J., Jackson, C., Mauer, E., and Paterson, M. (2006). Designing a Multi-Vehicle Control System: System Design, Team Composition, and User Interaction. Cooke, N.J., Pringle, H., Pedersen, H., and Connor, H. (Eds). Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research: Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Vehicles. New York , NY: JAI Press. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_UV_CERI_2006.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Haimson, C., Diedrich., Paley, M., (2005). Training teamwork with synthetic teams. Clint Bowers, Eduardo Salas, and Florian Jentsch (eds.), Creating High-Tech Teams: Practical Guidance on Work Performance and Technology. Washington, DC: APA Press. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AWOTrainer_TeamsTech_2005.pdf]]
# [[MacMillan, J., Paley, M.J., Levchuk, Y.N., Entin, E.E., Serfaty, D., and Freeman, J.T. (2002). Designing the Best Team for the Task: Optimal Organizational Structures for Military Missions. In Mike McNeese, Ed Salas, and Mica Endsley (editors), New Trends in Cooperative Activities: System Dynamics in Complex Settings. San Diego, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Press. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Team_Design-2002.pdf]]
# [[Cohen, M.S., Freeman, J.T. and Thompson, B.T. (1998). Critical Thinking Skills in Tactical Decision Making: A Model and a Training Method. (Canon-Bowers, J. and E. Salas, eds.), Decision-Making Under Stress: Implications for Training and Simulation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Publications. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Critical_Thinking_in_Tactical_DecisionMaking-1998.pdf]]
# [[Cohen, Marvin S. and Freeman, Jared T. Improving critical thinking. In Flin, R., Salas, E., Strub, M., and Martin, L. (Eds.), Decision Making Under Stress: Emerging Themes and Applications. Ashgate,1997. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-DM_under_stress-1997.pdf]]
# [[Cohen, Marvin S., Freeman, Jared T. and Thompson, Bryan B. (1996). Training the naturalistic decision maker. In Caroline Zsambok and Gary Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/freeman_TrainingTheNaturalisticDecisionMaker_1997.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., Riedl, T.R., and Ward, R. (1994). Debugging software systems. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. NY: Wiley. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Software_Psychology-1994.pdf]]

!! Conference Proceedings
# Freeman, J., Nicholson, D., Squire, P., and Bolton, A. (In preparation). Data & Analytics Tools for Agile Training & Readiness Assessment. I/ITSEC 2014, Orlando, FL.
# [[Pappada, S., Geyer, A., Durkee, K., Freeman, J., & Cohn, J. (2013). Modeling Operational Workload for Adaptive Aiding In Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Operations. Proceedings of the 84th Annual Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) Scientific Meeting, Chicago, IL.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Workload_ASMA_2013.pdf]]
# [[Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle; Freeman, Jared; Dean, Courtney. (2013). Higher Automated Learning through Principal Component Analysis and Markov Models. Artificial Intelligence in Education 2013, Memphis, TN.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_HAL_AIED_2013.pdf]]
# [[Levchuk, G.; Roberts, J.; and Freeman, J. (2012). Learning and detecting patterns in multi-attributed network data. The AAAI Fall Symposium 2012 on Social Networks and Social Contagion. Nov 2-4, Arlington, VA.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_PatternLearningAndDetection_AAAI_2012.pdf]]
# [[Balasingam, B., Willett, P., Levchuk, G., Freeman, J. (2012). Exploratory joint and separate tracking of geographically related time series. Proc. SPIE 8393, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets 2012, 83930M (May 1, 2012).|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_DynamicTracking_SPIE_2012.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, et al. (2011). Understanding Assessment and Decision-Making in an Ill-Defined Domain. Naturalistic Decision Making. Orlando, FL.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_UnderstandingAssessmentAndAction_NDM2011.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Walker, A., Puglisi, M., Geyer, A., Marceau, R., and Marc, Y. (2011). Cognitive and perceptual skills involved in Combat Hunter expertise: Exploratory evidence for a new training framework. Orlando, FL, I/ITSEC 2011.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_IMPACTS IITSEC 2011.pdf]]
# [[McDowell, P., Johnson, R.E., Freeman, J., Roberts, M., and Horn, Z. (2011). Building a game to educate senior officers in counter-piracy. Orlando, FL, I/ITSEC 2011.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_BackToBasics_2011.pdf]]
# [[Riordan, B., Bruni, S., Schurr, N., Freeman, J., Ganberg, G., Cooke, N.J., Rima, N. (2011). Inferring user intent with Bayesian inverse planning: Making sense of multi-Unmanned Aerial Systems mission management. 20th Annual Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling Simulation, Sundance, UT, March 21-24, 2011. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_MIMIC_BRIMS_2011.pdf]]
# [[Bruni, S., Schurr, N., Riordan, B., Freeman, J., et al. (2010). Mixed-Initiative Machine for Instructed Computing (MIMIC). Presented at the DoD HFETAG-63, 3-6 May 2010, Tempe AZ.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_MIMIC_HFETAG_2010.pdf]]
# [[MacMillan, J., Zacharias, G., Freeman, J., Bullock, B. (Accepted). Strategic Roadmap for Human Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Science and Technology. HSCB Focus 2011, 8-10 February 2011,  Chantilly, VA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_HSCB-Roadmap_HSCB_2011.pdf]]
# [[McCormack, R., Yohai, I., Duchon, A., Freeman, J., Skarin, B., Pfautz, S., Salter, W. (2011). Assessing opinion change through the integration of agent-basedmodels and natural language processing. HSCB Focus 2011, 8-10 February 2011,  Chantilly, VA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_FACETS_HSCB_2011.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Grande, D., and Serfaty, D. (2009). A model of organizations, systems, and technologies. Proceedings of Delft Cooperation on Intelligent Systems Human Factors Event 2009, 13-14 October, Delft, The Netherlands.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/DCIS09_MOST_v5.pdf]]
# [[Grande, D., Black, J.T., Freeman, J., Sorber, T., and Serfaty, D. (2009). Use of Dynamic Models and Operational Architecture To Solve Complex Navy Staffing Challenges. Proceedings of the MODSIM WORLD 2009, Virginia Beach, VA, 14-16 October 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_MOC-PAT_MODSIM09.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Stacy, W., MacMillan, J., Carlin, A., and Levchuk, G. (2009). Capturing and Building Adaptive Expertise in Virtual Worlds. Proceedings of Human Computer Interaction International 2009. San Diego, CA, 19-24 July 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AdaptiveInstruction_HCIInternational_2009.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Stacy, W., Levchuk, G., Colonna-Romano, J., Shebilske, W. (2009). Techniques and technologies for optimizing instructional strategy. Proceedings of the 24th Annual SIOP (Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology) Conference. New Orleans, LA. 2-4 April 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_OptimalTraining_SIOP_2009.pdf]]
# [[Hutchins, S., MacKinnon, D., Freeman, J., and Gallup, S. (2009). Maritime domain awareness: Assessment of current status. Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_MaritimeDomainAwareness_CCRTS_2009.pdf]]
# [[Geyer, A., Freeman, J., Nicholson, D., Fedopistis, C., Luu, P., Cohn, J. (2009). Neurally-driven adaptive decision aids. Proceedings of Human Computer Interaction International 2009. San Diego, CA, 19-24 July 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_NeuralDecisionAids_HCIInternational_2009]]
# [[Hutchins, S.G., Gallup, S.P., MacKinnon, D., Miller, S., Freeman, J., Grande, D., Dunaway, D., and Poeltler, B. (2008). Enhancing Maritime Domain Awareness. Proceedings of the 13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS 2008), 17-19 June 2008, Seattle, WA.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_MDA_2008.pdf]]
# [[Levchuk, G.M. , Gildea, K., Freeman, J., and Shebilske, W. A Benchmarked Experiential System for Training (BEST). (2007). Proceedings of the 12th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Newport, RI.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_BEST_CCRTS-2007.pdf]]
# [[Shebilske, W., Gildea, K., Levchuk, G., and Freeman, J. (2007). Training Experienced Teams for New Experiences. Human Factors  and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_BEST_HFES_2007.pdf]]
# [[Grier, R.A., Colonna-Romano, J., Spitz, G., and Freeman, J. (2007). UPDATE: A Usability Analysis Method and Tool. Human Factors  and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_UPDATE_HFES_2007.pdf]]
# [[Winner, J., Cooke, N.,  Freeman, J., and Goodwin, J., (2007). Designing Commander's Intent to Enhance Adaptability.  Human Factors  and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_SICI_HFES-2007.pdf]]
# [[Linegang, M., and Freeman, J. (2006). Evaluating intelligent systems for complex socio-technical problems: Seeking wicked methods. Proceedings of Performance Measurement for Intelligent Systems. August 21 - 23, 2006, Gaithersburg, MD.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Model-Based-Evaluation_PerMIS-ASSIST_2006.pdf]]
# [[Wiese, Emily E.; Merket, Danielle; Stacy, Webb; Nelson-Walwanis, Melissa; Freeman, Jared; and Aten, Tom. (2006). Enhancing distributed debriefs with performance measurement objects. Proceedings of I/ITSEC 2006, Orlando, FL.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_PMOs_IITSEC_2006.pdf]]
# [[Stacy, W., MacMillan, J., Freeman, J., and Wiese, E. (2006). Where Are the Instructor and the Trainee in Simulator-based Training Scenarios? Panel at Behavioral Representations in Modeling and Simulation, 2006. Baltimore, MD.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_WhereIsTrainee_BRIMS_2006.pdf]]
# [[Stacy, W., Ayers, J., Freeman, J., Haimson, C. (2006). Representing Human Performance with Human Performance Measurement Language. Proceedings of the Software Interoperability Workshop 2006, Las Vegas, NV.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs//Freeman_HPML_SIW_2006.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., MacMillan, J., Haimson, C., Weil, S., Stacy, W., and Diedrich, F. (2006). From gaming to training. Society for Advanced Learning Technology. Orlando, FL. 8-10 February 2006. 8-10February 2006.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Gaming2Training_SALT_2006.pdf]]
# [[Weil, S.A., Carley, K.M., Diesner, J., Freeman, J., and Cooke, N.J. (2006). Measuring Situational Awareness through Analysis of Communications: A Preliminary Exercise. Submitted to the Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium 2006, San Diego, CA.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_IMAGES_CCRTS_2006a.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Weil, S., and Hess, K. (2006). Measuring, monitoring, and managing knowledge in command and control organizations. Human Factors and Medicine Panel Workshop. United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_CenterImages_TAP_2006.pdf]]
# [[Bergondy-Wilhelm, M., Johnston, J., and Freeman, J. (2005). Research to Support Training Distributed Tactical Aviation Teams. International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 19-21 April 2005. Oklahoma City, OK.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AviationPsych_2005.pdf]]
# [[Cohn, J., Milham, L., Stanney, K., Hale, K., Freeman, J., Schaffer, R., Switzer, F., Muth, E., Hoover, A., Stripling, R., and Schmorrow, D. (2005). Assessing and enhancing team training technologies: From the lab to the field. (Panel presentation). Proceedings of the 49th Annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting. Orlando, FL, September 26-30, 2005. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_TeamPerformance_HFES2005.pdf]]
# [[Diedrich, F.J., Freeman, J., Entin, E.E., and Macmillan, J. (2005). Modeling, measuring, and improving cognition at the team level. Proceedings of Augmented Cognition 2005, Las Vegas, NV. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-TeamCognition_2005.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Leclerc, J., and Richardson, A.X. A diagnostic assessment and training system for maintenance technicians. (2005). Human Systems Integration Symposium 2005. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_DiagnosisTraining_HSI_2005.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., MacMillan, J., Haimson, C., Weil, S., and Diedrich, F. (2005). Systems, studies, and strategies in game-based learning. Proceedings of Training and Simulation International. 22-24 March, 2005. Maastricht, Netherlands. 2-24March205 |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_tesi_2005_v8.pdf]]
# [[Johnston, J.H., Radtke, P.H., Salter, W., and Freeman, J. (2005). A Human Systems Integration Method for Validating Team Performance Assessment within a Simulation- Based Training System. Panel at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_DDSBEValidation_HFES_2005.pdf]]
# [[Lampton, D.R., Cohn, J.V., Endsley, M.R., Freeman, J., Gately, M.T., Martin, G.A.,(2005).Measuring Situation Awareness for Dismounted Infantry Squads. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_SituationalAwareness_IITSEC_2005.pdf]]
# [[Salter, W.J., Hoch, S., and Freeman, J. (2005). Human Factors Challenges in After- Action Reviews in Distributed Simulation-Based Training. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_HFinAAR_HFES_2005.pdf]]
# [[Stacy, W., Merket, D., Freeman, J., Wiese, E., Jackson, C. (2005). A Language for Rapidly Creating Performance Measures in Simulators. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Measurement_IITSEC_2005.pdf]]
# [[Weise, E. and Freeman, J. (2005). Reliable, Valid, and Affordable Measurement in Distributed Simulation. Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Workshop. Panama City, FL., 23-26 May 2005. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Measurement_HFETAG_2005.pdf]]
# [[Bell, B., Johnston, J., Freeman, J., and Rody, F. (I2004). STRATA: DARWARS for Deployable, On-Demand Aircrew Training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference. (6-9 December, 2004, Orlando, FL). |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-STRATA_2004.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Salter, W., and Hoch, S. (2004). The users and functions of debriefing in simulation-based team training. Proceedings of the 2004 Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomic Society, New Orleans, LA.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Debriefing_functions_2004.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Salter, W.J., and Hoch, S. (2004). Required functions and recommended features of distributed debriefing systems. Human Factors and Ergonomics Technical Advisory Group, Alexandria, VA. 2 Nov. 2004. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_DebriefingFunctions_HFETAG_2004.pdf]]
# [[Haimson, C. and Freeman, J. (2004). The Analyst's Analyst: An assessment and training system for intelligence organizations. Proceedings of HPSAA, Daytona Beach, FL. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Analysts_Analyst-2004.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Haimson, C. (2004). The analyst's analyst. Friends of the Intelligence Community 21-23 Jan 2004 NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_IMINT_FOIC_2004.pdf]]
# [[Lackey, S.J., Merket, D.M., Stacy, W., and Freeman, J. (2004). Intelligent training support tools: technology for the future. Proceedings of the 2004Conference of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-IntelligentAgents_2004.pdf]]
# [[Stacy, W., Freeman, J., Lackey, S., and Merket, D. (2004). Enhancing Simulation-Based Training with Performance Measurement Objects. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference. (6-9 December, Orlando, FL). |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Performance_Measurement_Objects_2004.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J. and Hess, K. (2003). Collaborative critical thinking. Proceedings of the 8th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Washington, DC. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Collaborative_Critical_Thinking-2003.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Diedrich, F.J., Haimson, C., Diller, D.E., and Roberts, B. (2003). Behavioral representations for training tactical communication skills. Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation. Scottsdale, AZ. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Behavioral_Reps_for_Tactical_Training-2003.pdf]]
# [[Johnston, J.H., Serfaty, D., and Freeman, J.(2003). Performance measurement for diagnosing and debriefing distributed command and control teams. Proceedings of the 8thInternational Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Washington, DC. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Distributed_Debriefing-2003.pdf]]
# [[Linegang, M., Haimson, C., Freeman, J., and MacMillan, J. (2003). Human Control in Mixed-Initiative Systems: Lessons from the MICA-SHARC Program. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Washington, DC.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-UAV_Control-2003.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J. and MacMillan, J. (2002). Mixed-initiative control of robotic systems. Proceedings of the 7th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Monterey, CA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-UAV_Control-2002.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J. and Serfaty, D. (2002). Team critical thinking. Proceedings of the 7th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Monterey, CA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Team_Critical_Thinking-2002.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., and Paluska, J. (2002). Training with Synthetic Agents: An Instructional Conops. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference on Computer Generated Forces, Orlando, FL. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Synther_Training_CONOPS-2002.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., Pharmer, J.A., Lorenzen, C., Santoro, T.P., and Kieras, D. (2002). Complementary methods of modeling team performance. Proceedings of the 7th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Monterey, CA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Team_Modeling-2002.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, Jared. (2002). I've got synthers. Who could ask for anything more? Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Baltimore, MD. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Ive_Got_Synthers-2002.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., and Paley, M.J. (2001). A systematic approach to developing system design recommendations. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Minneapolis, MN. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Design_Process-2001.pdf]]
# [[Pharmer, J.A., Freeman, J.T., Scott-Nash, S., Santoro, T.P., and Kieras, D. (2001). Complementary methods of modeling team performance. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Minneapolis, MN. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Team_Modeling-2001.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., Campbell, G.E., and Hildebrand, G. (2000). Measuring the Impact of Advanced Technologies and Reorganization on Human Performance in a Combat Information Center. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Measuring_Technology-2000.pdf]]
# [[Poirier, J., MacMillan, J., Hess, K., Freeman, J., and Serfaty, D. (2000). Conceptual Description: The Sophisticated Automatic Policy-Generation Executor (SAGE) Tool. Proceedings of the 2000 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Monterey, CA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Information_Policy_Tool-2000.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Cohen, M.S., and Thompson, B.T. (1999). Opportunities for Improving Decision-Making in the Cockpit American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 11-14 January, 1999. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Cockpit_DecisionMaking_1999.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., Thompson, B.T., and Cohen, M.S. (1999). Modeling and Diagnosing Domain Knowledge using Latent Semantic Indexing. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Houston, TX. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Modeling_Knowledge_with_LSA-1999.pdf]]
# [[Cohen, M.S., Parasuraman, R., and Freeman, J.T. (1998). Trust in decision aids: A model and its training implications. Proceedings of the 1998 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Monterey, CA. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Trust_in_Decision_Aids-1998.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Cohen, M.S., and Thompson, B.T. (1998). Effects of Decision Support Technology and Training on Tactical Decision Making. Proceedings of the 1998 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Monterey, CA |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Decision_Support-1998.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Cohen, M.S., and Thompson, B.T. (1998). Time-Stressed Decision-Making in the Cockpit. Proceedings of the Association for Information Systems 1998 Americas Conference, Baltimore, MD. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Timepressured_DecisionMaking-1998.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Cohen, M., Serfaty, D. and Thompson, B. (1997). Beyond pattern recognition: Improving situation assessment by training critical thinking skills. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Situational Awareness in the Tactical Air Environment. Patuxent River, MD. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Situation_Awareness-1997.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, Jared T., Cohen, Marvin S. and Serfaty, Daniel. (1997). Information Overload in the Digital Army: Simulator-based Training for Prevention, Detection and Cure. Proceedings of the 1997 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Information_Overload-1997.pdf]]
# Cohen, Marvin S. and Freeman, Jared T. (1997). Improving critical thinking. Proceedings of the 1997 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C.
# Cohen, Marvin S., Freeman, Jared T. and Thompson, Bryan T. (1997). Integrated critical thinking training and decision support for tactical anti-air warfare. Proceedings of the 1997 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C.
# [[Cohen, Marvin S. and Freeman, Jared T. (1996). Thinking naturally about uncertainty. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 40th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Uncertainty_1996.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, Jared T. and Cohen, Marvin S. (1996). Training for Complex Decision-Making: A Test of Instruction Based on the Recognition / Metacognition Model. Proceedings of the 1996 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Monterey, California. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Training_DecisionMaking-1996.pdf]]
# [[Thompson, Bryan, Cohen, Marvin S., and Freeman, Jared. (1995). Metacognitive Behavior in Adaptive Agents. Proceedings of the World Congress on Neural Networks (published on CD-ROM). |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Adaptive_Agents-1995.pdf]]
# Cohen M.S., Freeman, J.T., and Thompson, B.B. (1995), Training metacognitive skills for decision making. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, OH.
# [[Freeman, Jared T. and Cohen, Marvin S. (1994). Training metacognitive skills for situation assessment. Proceedings of the 1994 Symposium on Command and Control Research and Decision Aids, Monterey, California. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Training_Metacognition-1994.pdf]]
# [[Riedl, T.R., Weitzenfeld, J.S., Freeman, J.T., Klein, G.A., and Musa, J. (1991). What we have learned about software engineering expertise. In J.E. Tomayko (Ed.), Software Engineering Education: SEI Conference 1991. NY: Springer-Verlag. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Lesssons_About_Software_Expertise-1991.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J.T., Riedl, T.R., Weitzenfeld, J.S., and Musa, J. (1991). Instruction for software engineering expertise. In J.E. Tomayko (Ed.), Software Engineering Education: SEI Conference 1991. NY: Springer-Verlag. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Instructing_Software_Expertise-1991.pdf]]
# [[Weitzenfeld, J.S., Klein, G.A., Riedl, T.R., Freeman, J.T., and Musa, J. (1991). Knowledge elicitation for software engineering expertise. In J.E. Tomayko (Ed.), Software Engineering Education: SEI Conference 1991. NY: Springer-Verlag. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Eliciting_Software_Expertise-1991.pdf]]
# [[Riedl, T.R., Weitzenfeld, J.S., Klein, G.A., and Freeman, J.T. (1990). Application of a knowledge elicitation method to software debugging expertise. ATandT: Proceedings of Behavioral Sciences Days '90. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Critical_Decision_Method_for_Software_Debugging-1990.pdf]]
# [[Weitzenfeld, J.S., Freeman, J.T., Riedl, T.R., and Klein, G.A., (1990). The critical decision method (CDM): A knowledge-mapping technique. ATandT: Proceedings of Behavioral Sciences Days '90. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Critical_Decision_Method-1990.pdf]]

!! Conference Presentations and Posters
# Bruni, Sylvain; Carlin, Alan; Colonna-Romano, JCR; Freeman, Jared; Ortiz, Andres; Saffell, Tiffany; Stacy, Webb; Saffold, Jay; Marshall, Henry. (In review). A Mixed-initiative Approach to Improving Design, User Experience of Experimental Design. UXPA 2013 (User Experience Professionals Association), Washington, DC, July 9-12, 2013.
# Hoffman, R., Fiore, S., Andrews, D., Goldberg, S., Andre, T., Freeman, J., Fletcher, J., Klein, G. (2010). Accelerated learning: prospects, issues, and applications. Panel at Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, San Franciso, CA, 27 Sept - 1 Oct 2010.
# [[Grande, D.E., Freeman, J., Carlin, A., Weil, W., Sorber, T., and Black, T. (2010). Modeling the structure and adaptation of dynamic organizations. Poster presented at the INFORMS Annual Meeting, 7-10 November, 2010, Austin, TX.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_MOC-PAT_INFORMS_2010.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Gallup, S.P., and MacKinnon, D.J. (2009). Human interoperability: Initial theory and research. Proceedings of the Human Behavior-Computational Intelligence Modeling Conference. Oak Ridge, TN, 23-24 June 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_HBIMC_2009_Abstract_v7.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., MacMillan, J., Levchuk, G., Grande, D., Skarin, B., Paley, M. (2009) Computational models of social systems: red, green, & blue. West Point Global Leadership Conference. West Point, NY. March 25-27, 2009. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_ModelsOfSocialSystems_2009.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Stacy, W., Levchuk, G., and Colonna-Romano, J. (2009). Adapting training objectives & environments to improve learning. Army Research Institute Workshop on Adaptive Training Technologies. Charleston, SC. March 4-6, 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AdaptiveTraining_ARI_2009.pdf]]
# Shebilske, W., Levchuk, G., and Freeman, J. (2008). A team training paradigm for better combat identification. Presented at Human Factors in Combat Identification, Scottsdale, Apache Junction, AZ. 
# [[Winner, J.L., Cooke, N.J., Freeman, J., Sager, L., Goodwin, G.F. (2008). Rank order procedure: measuring the shared interpretation of commanders intent. Presented at the 2008 Annual Convention of the Amarican Psychological Association, Boston, MA|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_CommandersIntent_APA_2008.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Levchuk, G., Stacy, W., Levchuk, Y., and Sidman, J. (2008). Accelerated Learning: Creating Rapid and Enduring Expertise. Accelerated Learning Workshop, 22-23 July 2008, Alexandria, VA. .|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AcceleratedLearning_2008.pdf]]
# Otsby, D., Freeman, J., Weathers, F., Schmorrow, D., and Cohn, J. (2007). Using advanced neurocognitive techniques to ensure Warfighter resilience:  Establishing Cognitive Resilience Profile through the use of a Virtual Reality Tool. Poster presented at the 2007 Conference of the Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S., Salt Lake City, Utah.
# [[Haimson, C., Freeman, J., Wilson, C., and Richardson, A. (2005). An assessment  and training system for imagery analysis and reporting. In Proceedings of the  2005 International Conference of Intelligence Analysis, MacLean, VA.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AnalystsAnalyst_IA_2005.pdf]]
# Coovert, M. D., Freeman, J., Hess, K., Willis, T. J., Gray, A. A., Stilson, F. R., Prewett, M., and Klein, R. (2005, October). Factors influencing collaborative critical thinking in teams. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology, Lake Tahoe, NV.
# Prewett, M. S., Willis, T. J., Gray, A. A., Klein, R., and Freeman, J. (2005, May). Critical Thinking Training for Collaborative Computer Simulated Tasks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society, Los Angeles, CA.
# [[Freeman, J., Johnston, J.H., Shurig, I., Castillo, A.,and Meliza, L. (2003). Requirements for Intelligent Agents in Debriefing Systems. (Panel abstract). Proceedings of the12th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation. Scottsdale, AZ. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Debriefing_Requirements-2003.pdf]]
# [[Levchuk, Y. and Freeman, J. (June 12, 2001). An Algorithmic Approach to Optimizing Teams. Military Operations Research Society Symposium, Annapolis, MD. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Team_Optimization-2001.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, Jared T. and Black, John B. (April,1994). Evaluation of a cognitive task analysis methodology in a study of educational administration. Presentation to the 1994 annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-CTA_Evaluation_1994.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, Jared. (1994). A Generic, Graphical Decision Aid for Students of Taxonomic Domains. Presented at the 1994 annual conference of the American Educational Research Association. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Decision_Aid-1994.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Guillen, J. (1993). Formative evaluation of a generic decision aid for classroom use. Presentation to the 1993 annual meeting of The American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, Georgia. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Decision_Aid-1993.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Weitzenfeld, J., Klein, G., Riedl, T., and Musa, J. (1991). A Knowledge Elicitation Technique for Educational Development: The Critical Decision Method. Presentation at the 1991 Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Knowledge_Elicitation-1991.pdf]]

!! Other Publications
# [[Puglisi, M., Geyer, A., Walker, A., Freeman, J., Marceau, R., and Mark, Y. (2012). Building experts in the corps: Using training, knowledge, perception, and reasoning. Marine Corps Gazette. June, 2012.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_CombatProfilingExpertise_USMCGazette_2012.pdf]]
# [[MacMillan, J., Freeman, J., Stacy, W., Wiese, E., Ayers, J., & Geyer, A. (2011). Adaptive training in virtual environments. Warfighter Enhancement Activities, 3, 12.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_AdaptiveTraining_2009_WarfighterEnhancementActivities.pdf]]
# [[MacMillan, J., Freeman, J., Stacy, W., Wiese, E., Ayers, J., and Geyer, A. (2009). Aiding in assessments. WEPONewsletter. Orlando, University of Central Florida. Special Edition, November 2009.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_Assessment_WEPONewsletterSpecialEdition_2009_pg12.pdf]]
# Freeman, Jared T. and Grant, David M. (1988, Winter).  Designing mailing list systems for public relations.  Public Relations Quarterly, pgs. 5-9.  
# Freeman, Jared T.   (1982, January/February). On-the-job training.  Historic Preservation, pgs. 44-49.
# Institute for Urban Design.  (1982).  Education for Urban Design.  Purchase, N.Y.  (Contributing editor.)
# Freeman, Jared.  (1983, September/October).  Apple's Lisa:  Designed with the user in mind. Computer Graphics News. 
# Freeman, Jared.  (1983, September/October).  Screen designers explore better displays for users. Computer Graphics News. 
# Freeman, J. and Meltzer, R..  (1983 January/February).  Researchers use graphics modeling to search for new miracle drugs." Computer Graphics News. 
# Meltzer, R. and Freeman, J.  (1983, September/October).  Bubbleman.  Computer Graphics News. 
# Freeman, Jared T. (1981, July). Solar In The City. Metropolis.
# [[Freeman, Jared T. (1992, July). Conference review: Empirical studies of programmers, Fourth workshop. SIGCHI Bulletin, 24(3), 18-23. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Empirical_Studies_of_Programmers-1992.pdf]]

!! Technical Reports (selected)
# Freeman, J., Heacox, N., and MacKinnon, D. (2008). Naval Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Process Engineering Workshop 15-17 January 2008 Summary Report. Naval Postgraduate School, Technical Report, NPS-IS-08-006, Monterey, CA. 
# Freeman, J., Gallup, S., MacKinnon, D., and Hutchins, S.  (2008).  Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Workflow Model Status Report.   Naval Postgraduate School, Technical Report, NPS IS-08-002, Monterey, CA. 1 March 2008.
# [[Freeman, J.T., Cohen, M.S., Serfaty, D., Thompson, B., and Bresnick, T. (1997). Training in information management for army brigade and battalion staff: methods and preliminary findings. Volume 1073 of Technical report.  U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.|http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_TrainingInformationManagement_1997.pdf]]
# [[Cohen, M.S., Freeman, J.T., Fallesen, J.J., Marvin, F.F., and Bresnick, T.A. (1996). Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battlefield Situation Assessment: An Experimental Test. Volume 1050 of Technical report.  U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. | http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman_TrainingCriticalThinkingSkills_1996.pdf]]

!! Unpublished Work 
# Freeman, Jared T. (1993). The Organization and Character of Programmers' Knowledge Concerning Software Bugs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York City.
# Freeman, Jared T. (1994). A graphical decision aid to enhance job training and performance. Unpublished paper.
# [[Freeman, J. and Black, J. (Unpublished). Software debugging as a socially situated activity. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Social_debugging-1993.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, J., Black, J., and Riedl, T. (Unpublished manuscript). Social aspects of debugging: The implications for tool design. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Social_Aspects_of_Debugging-1993.pdf]]
# [[Freeman, Jared T. (Unpublished manuscript). A graphical decision aid to enhance job training and performance. |http://jaredfreeman.com/jf_pubs/Freeman-Graphical_Decision_aid-1994.pdf]]

!! Patents
# Dynamic Process Modeling Assembly and Method of Use (Patent Pending)
# Probabilistic Decision Making System and Method of Use (Patent Pending)
!! Expertise

Jared Freeman, Ph.D., is Chief Research Officer at  [[Aptima|http://www.aptima.com]]. As a member of Aptima's executive team, he works to maintain the high quality of Aptima's research and to coordinate research efforts within the company.

Dr. Freeman is a cognitive scientist by training with a Doctorate in Human Learning and Cognition. He investigates problem solving and decision making in real-world settings, and defines training and job aids that address these challenges. Within the past several years, Dr. Freeman has led research and development projects to analyze, model, train, or aid imagery analysts, maintainers of intelligence technology, front line managers in DoD, warfighters engaged in anti-piracy operations at sea and peacekeeping ashore. He has led organizational R&D efforts to model the Navy's Maritime Operation Ceners and interagency groups engaged in Maritime Domain Awareness missions. Dr. Freeman also has served as P.I. on projects to integrate neuro-cognitive and behavioral measurement technologies; measure, monitor and manage team knowledge and collaboration; automate the analysis of voice communications; automate the analysis of written usability documents; and model the fit between human cognitive abilities, decision support systems, and mission requirements. His business development efforts have generated numerous contracts from research laboratories, training, and acquisition organizations for the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Joint organizations. 

Prior to joining Aptima, Dr. Freeman was a scientist at Cognitive Technologies, where he developed a highly automated approach to assessing student knowledge of tactical situations, as well as instructional technology that improved situation assessment and planning by Army officers. Dr. Freeman consulted to Bell Labs for two years, where he conducted research concerning how experts diagnose failures in complex software systems, co-developed a course based on that research, and taught it nationally. Dr. Freeman has published more than 100 chapters, articles, and proceedings papers on the topics of critical thinking, task analysis, computational modeling of teams, performance measurement, and training. 

Dr. Freeman received a Ph.D. from Columbia University and a M.A. in Educational Technology from Teachers College, Columbia University. He is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, and a contributing editor to the Journal of Human Factors.

!! Education
* Columbia University, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, NY -- Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology, specializing in Human Cognition and Learning, 1993.  Dissertation: The Organization and Character of Programmers' Knowledge of Software Bugs.  
* Teachers College, Columbia University, NY -- Master of Arts, Educational Technology, 1990.  Masters thesis: A Computer-Based Coach for Students of Statistical Probability.  
* New York University, NY -- Course work in knowledge engineering, 1987.
* State University of New York at Purchase  -- B.A. with Honors, Urban Affairs, 1980.
* Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH -- Undergraduate study in urban affairs and classical music.  1976-78.

!! Career
* 1999-Present: Aptima, Inc., Washington, DC / Woburn MA.
* 1993-1999: Research Scientist, Cognitive Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA
* 1993: Investigator, Institute on Education & the Economy Columbia University, NY
* 1991-1992: Instructor, Teachers College, Columbia University, NY
* 1991: R&D consultant, Merck Pharmaceuticals, Rahway, NJ
* 1989-1991: R&D consultant, Bell Laboratories, Middletown, NJ
* 1982-1983: Associate, Pacific Interface, NY, NY 
* 1981-1982: Technical writer, The Ehrenkrantz Group, NY, NY 
* 1979-1981: Contributing editor, Urban Design International, Purchase, NY 
* Consulting: 
** Independent consultant or writer for:  Sperry Systems (now Unisys) at the U.S. National Maritime Research Center, Kings Point, NY;  Symplex Communications Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI;  Anritsu Meter Co. of America, Franklin Lakes, NJ;  Westinghouse Corporation, MI;  Turner Construction, NY, NY;  KCS&A Public Relations, NY, NY;  The Consultancy, NY, NY;  LVM Associates, NY, NY. 
** Technical trainer for Kornstein Veisz & Wexler, NY;  Walter & Peck, Esq., Brooklyn, NY.  Instructor with Westchester Co. School District, Gifted Children's Program, NY.
a rare idea, a few tools
JaredFreeman.com
Social policy planning presents a “wicked problem”, [[Rittel and Webber|http://www.uctc.net/mwebber/Rittel+Webber+Dilemmas+General_Theory_of_Planning.pdf]] declared in 1973. By this, they meant that:

* The problem cannot be decomposed into parts because their factors form an interdependent whole;
* The whole cannot be understood independent of a solution, nor a solution found without understanding - that is defining - the problem; and
* The solution cannot satisfy all stakeholders because they have varied views of the problem and different criteria for solution.

Social policy planning is not an engineering discipline, Rittel and Webber concluded.

Some 34 years later, social systems are more complex, in part because they are tightly interwoven with technical systems. Our methods and tools for dealing with these systems have also evolved, but have they developed enough for us to defend this claim: The design and evaluation of socio-technical systems is an engineering discipline.

The answer is a qualified yes. Analysis, design, and evaluation of socio-technical systems is more engineering than art, when it is in competent hands.

Analysis & design: The systems view proposed taken by Rittel and Webber is no longer a novel or surprising perspective to those who analyze and design socio-technical systems. There’s been some recent discussion at niblettes about ways to approach these system. It is commonplace to view these as complex systems driven by an array of interdependent factors. The DoD, for example, analyzes the problems it faces from several distinct vantage points: political, military, economic, social, information, and infrastructure (PMESII). Similarly, the DoD attempts to solve these problems by adjusting the levers on several interdependent factors: doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities (DOTMLPF). Multi-factor analyses and solutions are not necessarily more successful (any more than good plans necessarily win battles), but they are arguably more robust, and more likely to satisfy the interests of the broad range on stakeholders engaged in them. That is, multi-factor analyses and solutions are relatively strong structurally and politically.

Evaluation: My colleague Michael Linegang (formerly of Aptima, now at the FAA) and I [[recently described a multi-method approach|http://aptima.com/publications/2006_Linegang_Freeman.pdf]] we use in an ongoing evaluation of soldier-worn sensors. “Elemental tests” verify that the technology performs to specifications in a laboratory environment. “Vignette tests” enable us to explore how soldiers use the sensors in a field environment populated by personnel in the roles of soldiers and village inhabitants. However, even these relatively realistic tests have their shortcomings: they sparsely sample the potential missions; abbreviate the duration and decision cycle of missions they do represent; and withhold stressors from the participants and their technologies, including sleep deprivation, threats, simple avoidance behaviors, and countermeasures.

Elemental and vignette tests support assessment of the integrity of the device (micro-level analysis) and its utility in a constrained social system (the mezzo-level). We argue that a macro-level evaluation method is required, and for this purpose we proposed computational modeling of the wicked problem space. Such models would represent the intentions and behavior of users, the [[capabilities of their technologies|http://www.aptima.com/publications/2005_Popp_GLevchuk_Serfaty_Allen_Meirina_Yu_Ruan_Pattipati_Lazaroff.pdf]], and the dynamics of the entities and artifacts with which they interact. This approach has produced surprising and useful data concerning the effectiveness of alternative suites of sensors for urban operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We believe that models of the wicked problem space hold promise for evaluating other socio-technical systems.

The wicked problems Rittel and Webber described in 1973 are still with us. The perspectives, techniques, and technologies we use to analyze those problems, solve them, and evaluate the solutions have evolved, giving us a new engineering advantage. The challenge of the next few decades is to observe, report and learn from the successes and failures of the new discipline of socio-technical engineering.
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Here are a few thoughts concerning...
!!! Technology Concepts
* [[How to Design Best for a Bad Model]] @@<-- NEW!@@
* [[Old Dogs, New Tricks: Making Statistical Graphics New Through Automation]]
* [[Auction Life]]
* [[Integrating Social Systems with Information Systems]]
* [[Socio-Technical Engineering in Wicked Problem Spaces]]
!!! Getting Things Done
* [[How to Write Badly]]
* [[How To 'To Do': Concepts for Compulsive Organizers]]
* [[Memory World: How We Use the World to Remind Us of Tasks]]
!!! And other stuff
* [[Cognitive Transformation Theory]]
* [[About Adaptive Decision Making]]
* [[Auction Life]]
[[Text transformers|../cgi-bin/text_transformers_v7.cgi]]
[[Acronym Generator|../cgi-bin/acronym.rb]]
[[Timeline of a Working Life|../exhibit/alife.html]]
[[Places in a Working Life|../exhibit/aplace.html]]
!!!What:
This website presents 
* A few random [[Thoughts]]: blogs, really
* Some less than random thoughts: my [[Publications]] with friends and colleagues
* A bit about me: my [[Resume]]
* A few [[Tools]] I find useful for reformatting text, generating acronyms, and such
!!!Why:
...because it's easier for me to find these goods on the web than on my own machines, embarrassingly enough.
!!!Where:
If you got here by search engine, the text you're looking for is here...somewhere. Just search (upper right) or view the Thoughts, Publications, Resume, and Tools pages (upper left). 
!!!How:
This website (excepting the articles and tools) is a [[TiddlyWiki|http://www.tiddlywiki.com/]] (v2.3.0), a website in a single file that integrates content, stylesheet, and javascript. Thanks to Jeremy Ruston and colleagues for conceiving this cool tool. 
''First time users'', notice the menus to the left and right, the search box above right, and the display controls above each section. 
If you want a copy of this website, right click [[here|#]] and click 'Save link as...' or 'Save target as...'.
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